Angiogenesis and Anti-tumor Immunity in the Tumor Microenvironment: Opportunities for Synergism in Intervention

Christopher Lemmon, Ibrahim Sadek, Zhonglin Hao

Section of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA


Angiogenesis inhibition and immunomodulation are successful stories of cancer therapy. However, primary and acquired resistances are common. Will combination of the two improve response rate and duration of response through synergy?  In addition to blocking neovascular formation, angiogenesis inhibitors (AI) help deliver more effective cytotoxic T lymphocytes to the tumor by improving vascular perfusion. Recent studies also showed that AI not only increased the efficacy of effector immune element but also decreased the number and function of suppressor immune cells such as T-regulatory cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages. In this review, we focus on AI and their effects on antitumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment and their potentials in boosting the efficacy of immunotherapy. In the clinical arena, trials are at the early stage to gauge the feasibility and preliminary signs of synergy. Journal of Nature and Science (JNSCI), 3(10):e460, 2017



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