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Medical Sciences

Facial Temperature Changes Following Intranasal Sphenopalatine Ganglion Nerve Block


Author: Ronald A Wasserman, Trevor Schack, Stephanie E. Moser, Chad M. Brummett, Wade Cooper

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0427

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine whether a facial temperature change occurs following lidocaine delivery to the sphenopalatine foramen via an intranasal catheter.
Background: Intranasal SPG blockade has received renewed interest with the advent of intranasal catheters that direct medication to the sphenopalatine foramen to achieve neural blockade. However, it is unclear whether such procedures have a measurable effect on cranial autonomic function. To date there have been no published reports of cranial autonomic nervous system effect via temperature change from intranasal SPG block procedures.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with a diagnosis of chronic head or facial pain who underwent intranasal sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blockade. Facial temperatures were monitored using skin temperature probes over the ipsilateral zygoma and recorded pre-procedure and 15 minutes post-procedure.

Results: 47 patients were included. The average temperature change was an increase of +1.4 C which was statistically significant (p<0.001) and 50% of patients had a 1 C or higher temperature change.

Conclusion: This study is the first to show a statistically significant increase in temperature following intranasal SPG block. This suggests that delivery of anesthetic to the sphenopalatine foramen results in blockade of the sympathetic fiber activity possibly via the maxillary artery plexus branches surrounding the sphenopalatine foramen prior to parasympathetic activity in the SPG.

 

Medical Sciences

T cells targeting neuromyelitis optica autoantigen aquaporin-4 cause paralysis and visual system injury


Author: Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Sharon A. Sagan, Raymond A. Sobel, Ari J. Green, Scott S. Zamvil

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0425

Abstract:

Coming soon

 

Medical Sciences

Vancomycin in the treatment of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Review


Author: Sukhpreet Singh, Kusum K. Kharbanda

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0419

Abstract:

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a disease of the bile ducts that causes inflammation and destruction of the intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts. It is also a progressive disorder that leads to fibrosis and liver failure and also increases risk of malignancy. PSC is a heterogeneous disease that is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly ulcerative colitis (UC). As of now, there is no established medical therapy for PSC and a majority of patients will eventually require liver transplantation. PSC is the fifth leading cause for liver transplantation, but transplantation does not guarantee a cure since there is a 20% chance of disease recurrence in the graft. At present the mainstay of therapy is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) which has largely been studied in various randomised control trials but has failed to alter the long-term outcome and natural course of the disease. Pathogenesis of PSC is still not clearly understood but recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis have paved way for trial of new therapeutic agents. Here in this review article, we present information gathered from published case reports/series and randomised control trials on the relationship between the microbiota and PSC pathogenesis with a purpose of understanding whether vancomycin is a potential effective pharmacotherapy for patients with this disease.

 

Oncology

Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes Contain Immunodominant Peptide-Specific T Cells Which Demonstrate Efficacy In Murine Models Of Adoptive Immunotherapy


Author: Kevin Choong, John Ammori, Khaled Hamzeh, Hallie Graor, Julian Kim

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0414

Abstract:

Background:  The purpose of this study was to determine whether tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) contain the necessary components to process and present tumor-rejection antigens. The secondary objective was to determine whether short term ex vivo culture of TDLNs could generate peptide-reactive T cells with specific anti-tumor effector function in vivo.

Methods:  4T1 and RENCA cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression plasmid containing HER2. These cell lines were then inoculated into the mammary fat pads of BALB/c mice to generate TDLNs. The antigen-experienced CD62Llow T cell subpopulation of TDLNs was isolated and activated ex vivo with anti-CD3 and expanded in interleukin (IL)-2 prior to determining in vitro and  in vivo activity.

Results:  Of nine HER2 nonameric peptides synthesized using the SYFPIETHI prediction model, culture activated cells derived from TDLNs from HER2-bearing 4T1 cells (4T1.2) secreted significant levels of interferon-g in response to the highest affinity peptide TYLPTNASL. Furthermore, culture-activated cells derived from 4T1.2 TDLNs secreted significant levels of interferon-g when co-cultured with either 4T1.2 or HER2-transfected RENCA cells, but not RENCA transfected with control plasmid. Additionally, adoptive transfer of culture activated cells derived from 4T1.2 TDLNs cured mice bearing 4T1, 4T1.2 and RENCA-HER2 but not RENCA transfected with control plasmid.

Conclusions:  Short-term culture of TDLNs ex vivo results in generation of peptide-reactive T cells which can be expanded and cure mice bearing HER2 transfected tumors in vivo. These results provide proof-of-concept that TDLNs have the capacity to process and present tumor-rejection antigens, specific to an individual patient’s tumor.

 

Medical Sciences

Adiponectin and its Hydrolase-Activated Receptor


Author: Ankit X. Sharma, William L. Holland

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0407

Abstract:

The relevance of adiponectin to insulin sensitivity has been elucidated over the last two decades. As a promoter of ceramide degradation, it works through its cognate receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, to alter bioactive sphingolipid species. Adiponectin diminishes the accumulation of ceramide, a lipid metabolite which can play a causal role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Concurrently, adiponectin stimulates the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a cytoprotective molecule that accentuates adiponectin’s positive metabolic effects. This review focuses on recent work that solidifies knowledge of the adiponectin signaling pathway, gives new insight into some notable characteristics of adiponectin’s receptors, and most importantly, affirms adiponectin receptor agonism as a viable therapeutic tool to combat elevated ceramide levels and improve insulin sensitivity in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

 

Neuroscience

The Effects of Sex on Fatigue-Induced Changes in Electromechanical Efficiency and Torque


Author: Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Cory M. Smith, Richard J. Schmidt, and Glen O. Johnson

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0405

Abstract:

Electromechanical efficiency (efficiencyE-M) has been used to detect changes in neuromuscular function and track decreases in torque production as a result of muscle fatigue.  No previous investigations, however, have applied efficiencyE-M to examine sex-specific decreases in torque as a result of fatigue.   Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine sex differences from the fatigue-induced effects of repeated, submaximal, concentric forearm flexion muscle actions on pretest versus posttest measurements of concentric peak torque, electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude, and efficiencyE-M (MMG amplitude ÷ EMG amplitude).  Eleven men and eleven women performed 50 consecutive submaximal (65% of concentric peak torque), concentric muscle actions of the forearm flexors at 60°·s-1.  There were decreases in pretest versus posttest concentric peak torque for both the men (30.5%) and women (22.3%) as a result of the fatiguing exercise bout, but the decrease was greater for the men.  From pretest to posttest, however, efficiencyE-M increased when assessed during the peak torque muscle actions for both the men and women.  During the fatiguing exercise bout, torque output remained unchanged at 65% of concentric peak torque, while efficiencyE-M decreased for both the men and women, but the decrease was greater for the men than women.  Thus, efficiencyE-M did not track torque production during the submaximal fatiguing protocol or during the pretest versus posttest peak torque muscle actions.

 

Medical Sciences

Diabetes and Cardioplegia


Author: Brittany A Potz, Laura A Scrimgeour, Jun Feng, Frank W Sellke

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0331

Abstract:

Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest is associated injury to the vasculature and microcirculation leading to coronary microvascular dysfunction, permeability changes and cardiac dysfunction.    In the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegia, poorly-controlled diabetes is associated with significant changes in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular dysfunction, vascular reactivity, vascular permeability, protein expression, cell death, coronary/peripheral microcirculation and reduced vasomotor tone leading to hypotension and impaired endothelial function. The gene expression profiles after cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest is quantitatively and qualitatively different in patients with diabetes. Gene expression profiling capitalizing on the differences between patients with and without diabetes is a good place to identify potential medical targets.

 

Medical Sciences

Neurothekeoma: Review of the Literature and Case Presentation


Author: Jacquelynn P. Tran, Stefanos Boukovalas, Ramon T. Li, Alexis L. Boson, Jillian M. McLaughlin, Eric L. Cole

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0330

Abstract:

Neurothekeomas are rare, benign cutaneous tumors often found on the head, neck, and upper extremities. They were first described in 1980 and since then, several cases have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature and: (1) summarize the common presentation of neurothekeomas, including gross and microscopic features, (2) describe microscopic variations, including myxoid, cellular and mixed presentation, and (3) summarize treatment options and risk factors for recurrence. We present a case of neurothekeoma on the nasal ala of an 8-year-old girl that we encountered at our institution.

 

Medical Sciences

Looking into pathogenesis processes of chronic diseases from metabolism angle


Author: Zhiqiang Jiang

Manuscript ID: JNSCI#17-0319

Abstract:

Chronic diseases are the most prevalent, costly diseases and by far the leading cause of mortality in the world. Efforts have been taken to utilize forward and reverse genetic studies in uncovering the molecular basis of these chronic conditions for decades. However, chronic diseases are still the long-lasting conditions that can be controlled but not cured. Most recently, progress has been made in metabolism studies. Metabolic profiling at the same time also reveals the nutrient and energy consumption facts in pathogenesis processes. Given that metabolic pathways are tightly cross talking with signaling pathways, looking into pathogenesis processes from metabolism angle is capable in providing therapeutic or translational prospects. In this review, cases of metabolism study in chronic diseases especially in pulmonary diseases are raised. The prospection of utilizing metabolism study in controlling chronic diseases is also discussed.

 
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